Histories and Cultures of Latinas: Suffrage, Activism and Women’s Rights
February 20-22, 2020 University of Houston Houston, Texas
The XV Recovery conference will convene in Houston from February 20 to 22, 2020 to continue the legacy of scholars meeting to discuss and present their research. The conference theme invites scholars—including archivists, librarians, linguists, historians, critics, theorists and community members–to share examples of the cultural legacy they are recovering, preserving and making available about the culture of the Hispanic world whose peoples resided here, immigrated to or were exiled in the United States over the past centuries. This conference foregrounds the work of Latinas that focuses on women’s rights, suffrage and education as we usher in a new phase of feminist critical genealogies. We seek papers, panels and posters in either English or Spanish that highlight these many contributions, but also offer us critical ways to rethink issues of agency, gender, sexualities, race/ethnicity, class and power. Of particular interest are presentations about digital humanities scholarship, methods and practices on these themes.
The end date for Recovery research and themes will now be 1980 in order to give scholars, archivists, linguists and librarians the stimulus needed to begin recovering the documentary legacy of the 1960s and 1970s, which is fast disappearing. We encourage papers or panels that make use of archival research that provokes a revision of established literary interpretations and/or historiographies. Papers or posters on locating, preserving and making accessible movement(s) documents generated by Latinas and Latinos in those two decades will be welcome. Studies on the following themes, as manifested before 1960, will be welcome:
Analytical studies of recovered authors and/or texts
Critical, historical and theoretical approaches to recovered texts
Curriculum development: Integrating recovered texts into teaching at university and K-12 levels
Religious thought and practice
Language, translation, bilingualism and linguistics
Library and information science
Social implications, cultural analyses
Collections and archives: accessioning and critical archive studies
Documenting the long road/struggle toward equality
1960-1980 only movement(s)-related research
Additionally, XV Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage Conference will offer two US Latino Digital Humanities (USLDH; #usLdh) pre-conference workshops open to conference attendees and members of the public. The workshop themes are: 1) Using Recovery archives for traditional scholarship and 2) Introduction to Digital Humanities. Pre-registration is required, a limited number of scholarships may be available. We welcome general audiences including undergraduate and graduate students. Undergraduate students are encouraged to submit proposals for poster presentations.
Submit your 250-word abstract for papers/posters and vitae by email to firstname.lastname@example.org by SEPTEMBER 30. (Deadline extended)
Arte Público Press has taken up as their difficult task to make a community visible that has been, relatively speaking, invisible, certainly at many of the expensive offices of the publishing world in New York. Arte Público is—as you know—the oldest and largest publisher of Latino literature in the United States. Since Dr. Nicolás Kanellos founded Arte Público in Houston in 1979, what has mattered is that the struggle to create relevant, high-quality work by Latino authors and for the Latino community is now more important than ever.
With about thirty books published every year, Arte Público is at once creating the future as well as preserving the past. For example, the press has focused on linking to schools to recognize Latino literary creativity: it is the largest licensor of literary materials to textbooks in the United States for the Hispanic market, and its imprint, Piñata Books, focuses on literature for children and young adults. Arte Público also conducts the largest program to recover all documents and books written by Latinos from the 16th Century to 1960, with the project “Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage.”
You want the largest minority in the United States to read?
Well, you better start focusing on writers who know the many variations of the
Latino community and you need to start publishing and promoting these writers.
Arte Público has been doing that for decades.
You want to get majority audiences to consider ‘Latino literature’ as quintessentially ‘American literature,’ the literature of the outsider and of immigrants, the literature of multilingual communities, the literature of civil rights and of finding a home in a strange new world? Well, you better start reaching into schools and communities so that the stereotypes of what people think about the United States-Mexico border, for example—in Fargo, North Dakota or on Manhattan’s Upper East Side—are upended by great books that encourage you to think, encourage to consider these new, often young communities as groups of Americans trying to make it here just as your ancestors once did. Yes, Arte Público has been in the empathy business fighting for Latinos before most of us in this room became writers.
Pat Mora, Luis Valdez, Manuel Ramos, Nicholasa Mohr, Miguel Piñero, Américo Paredes, Sandra Cisneros, Graciela Limón, Luis Leal, Nina Jaffe, Rolando Hinojosa, Lyn Di Iorio, Alicia Gaspar de Alba, Judith Ortiz Cofer, Diane Gonzales Bertrand, Miguel Algarín, and so many more Arte Público authors have sold tens of thousands of books and won hundreds of awards. Arte Público has been introducing, creating, and expanding this Latino literary landscape for all of us.
My own experience with Arte Público is that Director Nicolás Kanellos is a committed scholar of all things Latino, an advocate for his authors, and a tough negotiator. I actually enjoyed the give-and-take with Nick, who is the heart and soul of Arte Público. Yes, the warm and fuzzy feelings of finding a home for my book of essays, Crossing Borders, and my novel, The Nature of Truth, and my international anthology of essays, Our Lost Border, all of these feelings were there. But more importantly, I knew as a writer that they understood what I was doing on the page, they understood the readers I wanted to reach, they cared about the many communities I wanted to change. In short, Arte Público has had the same mission that I’ve always had: they want to give voice to those who want in to this American experiment, and they want to do it so that these voices are authentic and true to the people in places like Ysleta in El Paso, Texas or El Barrio of Spanish Harlem.
I would be remiss if I did not also mention two of my other
favorite people at Arte Público: Assistant Director Marina Tristan and Executive
Editor Gabriela Baeza. Both are at the center of what makes Arte Público thrive
in the literary trenches. As an author at Arte Público, you know it’s about
connecting with readers, and this all starts with connecting with the people
who are publishing your book. At every stage of the publishing process, this
personal attention is what turns your book into something much more than a
commodity to make some money or a marketing plan to cover the huge overhead of
offices on Broadway: with Marina and Gabi, your book becomes well-crafted words
to reach and advance a community you love: a work of art that matters. Arte
Público. That’s why I published with them, and that’s why I am proud that Arte
Público is the recipient of the Ivan Sandrof Lifetime
On March 14, 2019, Arte Público Press (APP) received the National Book Critics Circle Ivan Sandroff Lifetime Achievement Award in New York City. This is the transcript of the acceptance speech by the APP director and founder, Nicolás Kanellos, and the management team, Gabriela Baeza Ventura, Nellie González, Marina Tristan, and Carolina Villarroel.
NK: When we founded Arte
Público Press forty years ago, we envisioned it as part of the public art
movement. Our books would draw from and give back to the community, reflecting
its art, history and culture as well as its problems, like the muralists were
doing. That is why some of our initial book covers, such as for The House on Mango Street, were
commissioned to muralists.
Like the mural walls,
our pages would help to make our people visible, announcing we are here, we
have always been here and we have always contributed to life and culture in the
United States. From the start, we were inclusive of all Latino ethnicities,
religions and genders, and sought to combat stereotypes while inserting
ourselves into the national identity. As we grew, the mural became a mosaic
with each book becoming an individual tile in a large spectrum of varied
NG: Like our writers, we are mostly children
of the working class, the children of citizens, of families that have been here
since before the founding of the United States.
NK: I was an assembly line
worker and a shipping clerk weaving my box-laden dolly through Seventh Avenue traffic
in the garment district during the 1960s. Others come from humble backgrounds, doing
domestic work, farm work and other manual labor.
CV: We are the people
selling the morning newspaper but never appearing in it, the men and women
washing dishes and waiting tables but never savoring the meals; we are among
the crowds on city sidewalks who individually remain invisible, never thought
of as writers and artists. It matters not that we are descendants of original
settlers, intermarried with indigenous peoples and descendants of African
slaves, whether immigrants from long ago or just yesterday, because no matter
how long Latino families have resided in and contributed to the making of this
country, we have been seen as foreigners.
GBV: No matter how well we spoke and wrote the King’s English, or how faithfully we reproduced the canons of American literature and culture, our books remained foreign to the mainstream press and, with a few notable exceptions, outside the scope of national awards. Now, thanks to your magnanimity, we will become more visible, recognizable as part of this grand cultural venture that is the creation and publication of books. Muchísimas gracias.
I gave the following talk on Jan. 5, 2019 at the Modern Language Association (MLA) Convention held in Chicago, IL.
This talk was part of a TC Digital Humanities sponsored roundtable on Digital Hispanisms with Alex Saum-Pascual (UC, Berkeley), Sylvia Fernández (U. of Houston), Nora Benedict (Princeton U), Vanessa Ceia (McGill U), Lorena Gauthereau (U. of Houston), Hilda Chacón (Nazareth College). This roundtable was designed to spark a conversation on the intersections between Digital Humanities (DH) and Hispanic Studies (HS). For all the speakers’ abstracts, please visit: https://mla.hcommons.org/groups/digital-humanities/forum/topic/mla19-582-roundtable-digital-hispanisms-2/
As we reflect on Digital Hispanisms in this roundtable, I want to briefly describe the types of theoretical frameworks and methodologies that emerge when engaging the digital humanities (DH) through US Latinx Studies. Specifically, I am interested in the groundwork laid by Chicana and Third World feminists. Rather than continuing to center hegemonic Anglophone theorists, I argue that by drawing from the lived experiences of Women of Color, we can shift the types of conversations taking place in the field of digital humanities. As a Woman of Color, I recognize that we cannot rely on hegemonic DH theory to acknowledge, much less accurately represent, our lived experiences and the digital stories we tell. As an example of DH discourse elaborated from the perspective of Third World feminism, I will discuss my mapping project, “Are We Good Neighbors?” and how my proposed theoretical framework highlights what is at stake in doing this type of DH: it’s a matter of humanizing a past that has all too often been silenced. Third World feminism accounts for the way that theory and lived experience meld, and stresses that the theoretical needs to be grounded in the flesh because our experiences cannot be separated from who we are.
“Are We Good Neighbors?” is a story map that includes transcriptions of affidavits and maps incidents of discrimination against Mexican Americans in Texas during the 1940s. These affidavits are from the Alonso S. Perales Collection at the University of Houston’s Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage. Perales was one of the first Mexican Americans to practice law in the US and one of the co-founders of the civil rights organization, the League of United Latin American Citizens (or LULAC) (Olivas xi). In addition to practicing law, he was also a diplomat, veteran, civil rights activist, and author of two books: En defensa de mi raza (In Defense of My People) and Are We Good Neighbors?, from which I drew the digital project’s name. As part of his activism, Perales encouraged the Mexican American community to report discrimination and to call out, by name, the public establishments in which these incidents occurred. As a result, his archival collection includes hundreds of affidavits and letters.
One after another, these accounts tell stories of the quotidian: going out for dinner with family, spending time with friends, moving to a new house, riding the bus to school, or even going to the barber shop for a haircut. Yet, for Mexican Americans in the 1940s, these quotidian activities are marked by disgust, hatred, shame, fear, and even violence. And these negative affects are felt and worn on the body. Mapping these instances gives a materiality to the offenses, geolocating them in neighborhoods and commercial centers still frequented today. When the bodies of those who experienced this discrimination are long gone, it is our bodies that can physically stand in these places.
Framed through the lens of Third World feminists, such as Sara Ahmed, Gloria Anzaldúa, and Cherríe Moraga, “Are We Good Neighbors?” reveals the personal history of racism, one that takes place in our neighborhoods to real people, rather than distanced through abstract statistics. What becomes apparent when mapping these accounts is the personal and normalized embodiment of racism in the US. The juxtaposition of these affidavits and maps call people to be witnesses through time and affectively embed the experience in its physical location. These locations are often places that we can imagine ourselves in. Remembering injustices through this type of witnessing makes people of color visible, and is, as Ahmed writes, “about claiming an injustice did happen; this claim is a radical one in the face of the forgetting of such injustices” (2004; 200).
Take for example the affidavit sworn by Amada B. Quesnot, the mother of five-year old Eugene Quesnot. On November 13, 1941, she attempted to take little Eugene to M&S Clinic for treatment yet was turned away because of her ethnicity. Amada writes,
The lady in charge in the Social Workers Room asked me if I was Latin American and when I replied in the affirmative she stated that no Latin American children were accepted for treatment at that Clinic.
(Quesnot qtd. in Perales 204)
Turned away, Amada insists upon her own legitimacy in her letter, tracing it through her US citizenship and both her husband’s and older son’s military service. She was born here, she protests. But her brown skin is read as un-American; and the brown skin of her five-year old child is read as undeserving of medical attention. Her decision to write the letter affirms her need to do something, to plead for political action. She documents a struggle, a status quo that needs to change. Her lived reality is tied to this political desire. Cherrie Moraga’s theory in the flesh makes this connection; a theory in the flesh, she writes, is a theory in which “the physical realities of our lives–our skin color, the land of concrete we grew up on, our sexual longings–all fuse to create a politic born out of necessity” (19). Echoing Moraga’s (1981) argument that theory is fused to the body, Sara Ahmed states that:
The personal is theoretical. Theory itself is often assumed to be abstract: something is more theoretical the more abstract it is, the more it is abstracted from everyday life. To abstract is to drag away, detach, pull away, or divert. We might then have to drag theory back, to bring theory back to life.
Gloria Anzaldúa’s (1987) mestiza consciousness then weaves these two together. It is the thread that ties the theory to the flesh. Anzaldúa imagines the mestiza putting
history through a sieve…This step is a conscious rupture with all oppressive traditions of all cultures and religions. She communicates that rupture, documents the struggle. She reinterprets history and, using new symbols, she shapes new myths.
Mestiza consciousness as an approach to DH calls us to read for the silences in historical narratives, to discard the frameworks that marginalize the experiences of people of color, and to invent new theories and methodologies that center our lived experiences.
Turning to Third World feminism in DH, then, reminds us to bring theory back to life, to bring it back to the lived experience. “Doing DH” isn’t just about the final product, but also about the process of dragging theory back and embodying it. Moreover, shifting the loci of enunciation from the center to the margin, reimagines DH not just as a site of knowledge-production, but also as a site of decolonial resistance and social justice. Our digital work does not need to be reduced to mere zeros and ones or replicate the canonical archive of dead white men’s work, but instead can be a space to reclaim lost histories, reveal injustices, and demand that our voices be heard. Allow me to end with one last Ahmed quotation in order to highlight the importance of thinking through DH via Third World feminism; I ask that you reflect on digital scholarship and digitized archives as I read this: “Your texts are littered with love. Words can pulse with life; words as flesh, leaking; words as heart, beating.” (2017; 230). Thank you.
Ahmed, Sara. Cultural Politics of Emotion. Routledge, 2014.
_____. Living a Feminist Life. Duke University Press, 2017.
Anzaldúa, Gloria E. Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. Aunt Lute Books, 1987.
Moraga, Cherríe and Gloria E. Anzaldúa. This Bridge Called My Back.Writings by Radical Women of Color. 4th ed., SUNY Press, 2015.
Olivas, Michael A. (ed.) In Defense of My People: Alonso S. Perales and the Development of Mexican-American Public Intellectuals. Houston: Arte Público Press, 2012.
Quesnot, Amada , “Affidavit sworn by Amada Quesnot to Alonso S. Perales,” Alonso S. Perales Collection. Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage Digital Collections.
Houston, TX January 2019— The National
Book Critics Circle (NBCC) has announced that Arte Público Press, the
nation’s largest publisher of U.S.-based Hispanic authors, has received the prestigious
Ivan Sandrof Lifetime Achievement Award. Named
after the first president of the NBCC, the award is given annually to a person
or institution with an extensive history of significant contributions to book
“The award comes as a total surprise because it
typically goes to authors,” said Dr. Nicolás Kanellos, founder and director of
Arte Público Press. “This recognition will help us amplify voices in Latino literature
throughout the United States.”
The National Book Critics Circle Awards, considered among the most respected literary awards in America, are bestowed by a jury of working critics and book-review editors. Past recipients include Margaret Atwood and Pulitzer Prize-winner Toni Morrison.
“The University of Houston has given Arte Público
Press an intellectual space in which to create and thrive, and has provided
Latinos the opportunity to make a nationwide cultural imprint through
literature,” said Dr. Kanellos. “I am proud that the Arte Público Press staff continues
to strive for literary excellence. We labor not for our own recognition, but
for the benefit of the authors we publish. Our mission to create a space for Latinos
in the national culture guides us forward.”
The NBCC Awards
will be presented on Thursday, March 14, 2019, at 6:30 pm at the New School’s Tishman
Auditorium (66 W 12th Street, New York, NY 10011), and a finalists’ reading will be
held on March 13, also at 6:30 pm at the same location. Both events are free
and open to the public.
The National Books Critics Circle was
founded in 1974 at the Algonquin Hotel by a group of the most influential critics of the day.
Comprising nearly 600 working critics and book-review editors throughout the
country, the NBCC annually bestows its awards in six categories, honoring the
best books published in the past year in the United States. The finalists for
the NBCC awards are nominated, evaluated, and selected by the 24-member board
of directors, which consists of critics and editors from some of the country’s
leading print and online publications, as well as critics whose works appear in
Arte Público Press is
the nation’s largest and most established publisher of contemporary and
recovered literature by U.S. Hispanic authors.
Its imprint for children and young adults, Piñata Books, is dedicated to
the realistic and authentic portrayal of the themes, languages, characters, and
customs of Hispanic culture in the United States. Based at the University of
Houston, Arte Público Press, Piñata Books and the Recovering the U.S. Hispanic
Literary Heritage project provide the most widely recognized and extensive
showcase for Hispanic literary arts and creativity. For more information, please visit our
website at www.artepublicopress.com.
Acompáñenos HOY, jueves, 17 de enero a las 2:00 EST, para “#usLdh: Latinos en los Estados Unidos en la era de las humanidades digitales,” un seminario en línea sobre el Programa de Recuperación del legado escrito de las/los latina/o/xs en los Estados Unidos (Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage). Este seminario es parte de la serie Desmantelando Fronteras/Breaking Down Borders de la sociedad de archivistas americanas, Society of American Archivists (SAA) Latin American and Caribbean Cultural Heritage Archives (LACCHA).
Las Dras. Gabriela Baeza Ventura, Carolina Villarroel, y Lorena Gauthereau hablarán sobre los antecedentes del program, la práctica de la custodia compartida (post-custodial), la creación del primer centro de humanidades digitales enfocado en estudios US Latinxs, y los proyectos digitales que se están desarrollando en este momento.
Several Recovery scholars will be attending MLA 2019 and presenting their work on recovered US Latinx literature. Make sure to check out the following sessions that include Recovery board members, scholars, students, and related Recovery material.
Are you presenting on recovered US Latinx literature and/or US Latinx Digital Humanities at MLA 2019? Please share your panel details in the comments below!
Thursday, Jan. 3
La Tolteca in Chicago and Beyond 1:45-3:00pm, Roosevelt 1, Hyatt Recency Presiding: Olga Herrera, U of St. Thomas, MN
“Writing around New Mexico in Ana Castillo’s So Far From God,” Anna Maria Nogar, U of New Mexico, Albuquerque
“Queering Place in Ana Castillo’s Git It to Me, “ Daniel Shank Cruz, Utica C
“Corporeal Containment: Sexual Excess and Racialized Sexuality in the New Chicana Narrative,” Bernadine Hernández, U of New Mexico, Albuquerque
Friday, Jan. 4
223.Visual and Literary Intersections of Chicanidad 10:15-11:30 am, Acapulco, Hyatt Regency
Presiding: José Navarro, California Polytechnic State U, San Luis Obispo
“Literature in/and Art: Carlota d. R. EspinoZa’s Graphic Library,” Melina Vizcaíno-Alemán, U of New Mexico, Albuquerque
“ChismeArte: A Critical Geneology,” Victor Valle, California Polytechnic State U, San Luis Obsipo
“Seeing Corridos: or, Gregorio Cortez, Superhero, “ William Orchard, Queens C, City U of New York
272.The Immigrant Experience in Twenty-First-Century Literatures of the United States 12:00 noon-1:15pm, Randolph 3, Hyatt Regency
Presiding: Christopher González, Utah State U
“Immigration and Queer Rites of Passage: Transparent and One Day,” Stephanie Pridgeon, Bates C
“The Art of ‘Straddling Two Places’: Salvadoran-American Poetry in the Twenty-First Century,” Jorge Mauricio Espinoza, U of Cincinnati
“Algorithmic Identity and the Narrative Dynamics of the Twenty-First-Century Immigrant Bildungsroman,” Joanne Freed, Oakland U
295. Almost Latino 1:45-3:00pm Grand Suite 5, Hyatt Regency
Presiding: Rodrigo Lazo, U of California, Irvine
Speakers: Jesse Alemán, U of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Ayendy Bonifacio, Ohio State U, Columbus; Raúl Coronado, U of California, Berkeley; Robert McKee Irwin, U of California, Davis; Carmen Lamas, U of Virginia
361. The Function of American Literary Criticism Now: Fact, Harm, Recognition, and Translation
5:15-6:30pm, Gold Coast Hyatt Regency Speakers: Nancy Bentley, U of Pennsylvania; Christopher D. Castigilia, Penn State U, University Park; John Alba Cutler, Northwester U; Susan Gilman, U of California, Santa Cruz; Elisa Tamarkin, U of California, Berkeley
Saturday, Jan. 5
466. Chicanx-Riqueñx Chicago 10:15-11:30am, Michigan 2, Hyatt Regency
Presiding: Richard T. Rodriguez, U of California, Riverside
“Will They Even Know We Were Here?: Meet Juan(ito) Doe, La Havana Madrid, and (Dis)Placement in Latina/o/x Chicago,” Lillian Gorman, U of Arizona
“’Revolú-Chicago Jam’ and Other Stories: Reading Rican Chicago in David Hernández’s Writings,” Mirelsie Velasquez, U of Oklahoma
“Brown Girls in the Windy City: Midwest Misfits and Latina/x Young Adult Literature,” Amanda Ellis, U of Houston
“Circulating Identities, Claiming Space: Chicago’s Latina/o/x Alternative Press Culture and the Public Sphere,” Ariana Ruiz, U of Iowa
537. Latinx Chicago: Contemporary Latinx Authors Write on and from Chicago 1:45-3:00pm Columbus AB, Hyatt Regency Presiding: Carmen Lamas, U of Virginia
Speakers: Reynolds Andújar, Governors State U; Daniel Borzutzky, Wright C; Brenda Cárdenas, U of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Paul Martínez, Triton College; José Olivarez, Young Chicago Authors; Coya Paz, DePaul U
582. Digital Hispanisms
5-6:30pm Erie, Sheraton Grand
Speakers: Nora Benedict, Princeton U; Vanessa Ceia, McGill U; Sylvia Fernández, U of Houston; Lorena Gauthereau, U of Houston; Élika Ortega, Northeastern U; Alex Saum-Pascual, U of California, Berkeley
Respondent: Hilda Chacón, Nazareth C
Sunday, Jan. 6
674. New Perspectives in Ecocriticism: Latinx Approaches 10:15-11:30am Roosevelt 3, Hyatt Regency Presiding: Ariana Vigil, U of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
“On Our Backs the Disaster: Climate Crisis in Latinx Communities,” Priscilla Solis Ybarra, U of North Texas
“Environmental Hope in a Neofascist Age: Speculative Futures in Alex Rivera’s Sleep Dealer and Sabrina Vourvoulias’ Ink,” David Vazquez, U of Oregon
“The Scar Where the River Once Ran: Care, Currents, and Cartography in Hector Tobar’s ‘Secret Stream’” William Orchard, Queenc C, City U of New York
Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage/Arte Público Press congratulates undergraduate, María Amador Cano, on being selected for the prestigious 2019-2020 Mellon Research Scholars Program at the University of Houston. María joined Recovery in April 2018 as an intern and has been aiding in the preservation, digitization, and data curation of various collections.
The Mellon Research Scholars Program awards student participants with $5,000 to conduct individual research projects and participate in developmental academic and mentorship activities for spring 2019-spring 2020. The research projects culminate in a paper or thesis and are presented by the end of the program.
María plans on working with the Martha P. de Perales Collection, which includes newspapers, manuscripts, legal documents, photographs, and invention schematics.
Tomando en cuenta los últimos acontecimientos y el estado tumultuoso en el que se encuentra el país estadounidense, una cuestión muy importante es el uso de la lengua. La historia de reglamentos lingüísticos en los Estados Unidos ha sido una de imponer el uso del inglés y desvaluar los idiomas minoritarios (Balestra 35). Por esta razón la colección de Delis Negrón es tan significativa al resaltar cómo la comunidad hispana en los Estados Unidos ha luchado contra la estigmatización del idioma. Según Nicolás Kanellos (2000), periódicos han protegido la lengua, cultura, y derechos de una minoría étnica dentro de un sistema más grande que además de ignorar a la comunidad es hostil contra ella (5).
Periódicos como La Prensa fueron pioneros en la lucha para estas comunidades; Kanellos argumenta que “many of its prominent writers and editorialists became leaders of Mexican /Mexican-American communities” (Kanellos 42), incluyendo a Delis Negrón, nacido en Puerto Rico, quien es un ejemplo de la solidaridad entre la comunidad hispana en el país. A pesar de ser puertorriqueño sus esfuerzos y dedicación en cuanto a los derechos de la comunidad México-americana son loables. Durante su transcurso como director, editor, escritor y traductor en varias publicaciones periodísticas Negrón contribuyó a la manutención del valioso idioma que es el español. Esta dedicación enfatiza el valor de su trabajo y el compromiso social que tenía con la comunidad hispana en los Estados Unidos. Los periódicos a los que contribuyó utilizaban la lengua española de varios modos. Algunos, como La Prensa, se publicaban completamente en español. Otros, como Laredo Times, eran publicaciones bilingües que incorporaban secciones en español o traducciones completas. El hecho de que periódicos como este siguen en producción, , como por ejemplo la Opinionde Los Ángeles California, sugiere la importancia de la prensa hispana para Latinos viviendo en los Estados Unidos.
Como académica de estudios hispánicos, el haber colaborado en este proyecto fue una oportunidad para contribuir a esta resistencia contra la imposición del inglés, que se encuentra incluso en espacios donde se espera la inclusión del español y otras lenguas. Recientemente en un congreso de estudios latinos se cuestionó el que hubiera presentado en español, reflejando el pensamiento que ha predominado por décadas. Esta misma desvaluación se ve en los medios de comunicación que relatan esta retórica a diario.
Es por esta razón que el resaltar la contribución de Delis Negrón a una audiencia más amplia es muy importante. Este archivo digital tiene la capacidad de llegar a diversas comunidades, incluyendo monolingües y bilingües, para enfatizar y hacer ostensible la presencia intelectual de los Latinos en los Estados Unidos. De manera, recordando a nuestra sociedad la lucha continua por nuestros derechos, y los resultados de esta, los que no debemos olvidar ni tomar en vano.
Balestra, Alejandra et al. Recovering the U. S Hispanic Linguistic Heritage: Sociohistorical Approaches to Spanish in the United States. Arte Público Press, 2008.
Kanellos, Nicolás y Helvetia Martell. Hispanic Periodicals in the United States, Origins to 1960: A Brief History and Comprehensive Bibliography. Arte Público Press, 2000.
 Periódico fundado por Ignacio E. Lozano en 1913 que permaneció activo hasta 1963. Kanellos describe el impacto que el periódico tuvo en la comunidad hispana “The Mexican community truly benefitted in that the entrepreneurs and businessmen did provide needed goods, information and services that were often denied by the larger society through official and open segregation. And, of course, writers, artists and intellectuals provided both high and popular culture and entertainment in a language not offered by Anglo-American society” (42-23).
 Otro periódico fundado por por Ignacio E. Lozano en 1926 que actualmente sigue en producción en Los Angeles, CA.