Digital Hispanisms: Using Third World Feminism in DH

I gave the following talk on Jan. 5, 2019 at the Modern Language Association (MLA) Convention held in Chicago, IL.

This talk was part of a TC Digital Humanities sponsored roundtable on Digital Hispanisms with Alex Saum-Pascual (UC, Berkeley), Sylvia Fernández (U. of Houston), Nora Benedict (Princeton U), Vanessa Ceia (McGill U), Lorena Gauthereau (U. of Houston), Hilda Chacón (Nazareth College). This roundtable was designed to spark a conversation on the intersections between Digital Humanities (DH) and Hispanic Studies (HS). For all the speakers’ abstracts, please visit:

As we reflect on Digital Hispanisms in this roundtable, I want to briefly describe the types of theoretical frameworks and methodologies that emerge when engaging the digital humanities (DH) through US Latinx Studies. Specifically, I am interested in the groundwork laid by Chicana and Third World feminists. Rather than continuing to center hegemonic Anglophone theorists, I argue that by drawing from the lived experiences of Women of Color, we can shift the types of conversations taking place in the field of digital humanities. As a Woman of Color, I recognize that we cannot rely on hegemonic DH theory to acknowledge, much less accurately represent, our lived experiences and the digital stories we tell. As an example of DH discourse elaborated from the perspective of Third World feminism, I will discuss my mapping project, “Are We Good Neighbors?” and how my proposed theoretical framework highlights what is at stake in doing this type of DH: it’s a matter of humanizing a past that has all too often been silenced. Third World feminism accounts for the way that theory and lived experience meld, and stresses that the theoretical needs to be grounded in the flesh because our experiences cannot be separated from who we are.

Garcia, Adriana.  Liminal Incubation, 2012.

“Are We Good Neighbors?” is a story map that includes transcriptions of affidavits and maps incidents of discrimination against Mexican Americans in Texas during the 1940s. These affidavits are from the Alonso S. Perales Collection at the University of Houston’s Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage. Perales was one of the first Mexican Americans to practice law in the US and one of the co-founders of the civil rights organization, the League of United Latin American Citizens (or LULAC) (Olivas xi). In addition to practicing law, he was also a diplomat, veteran, civil rights activist, and author of two books: En defensa de mi raza (In Defense of My People) and Are We Good Neighbors?, from which I drew the digital project’s name. As part of his activism, Perales encouraged the Mexican American community to report discrimination and to call out, by name, the public establishments in which these incidents occurred. As a result, his archival collection includes hundreds of affidavits and letters.

One after another, these accounts tell stories of the quotidian: going out for dinner with family, spending time with friends, moving to a new house, riding the bus to school, or even going to the barber shop for a haircut. Yet, for Mexican Americans in the 1940s, these quotidian activities are marked by disgust, hatred, shame, fear, and even violence. And these negative affects are felt and worn on the body. Mapping these instances gives a materiality to the offenses, geolocating them in neighborhoods and commercial centers still frequented today. When the bodies of those who experienced this discrimination are long gone, it is our bodies that can physically stand in these places.

Framed through the lens of Third World feminists, such as Sara Ahmed, Gloria Anzaldúa, and Cherríe Moraga, “Are We Good Neighbors?” reveals the personal history of racism, one that takes place in our neighborhoods to real people, rather than distanced through abstract statistics. What becomes apparent when mapping these accounts is the personal and normalized embodiment of racism in the US. The juxtaposition of these affidavits and maps call people to be witnesses through time and affectively embed the experience in its physical location. These locations are often places that we can imagine ourselves in. Remembering injustices through this type of witnessing makes people of color visible, and is, as Ahmed writes, “about claiming an injustice did happen; this claim is a radical one in the face of the forgetting of such injustices” (2004; 200).

Take for example the affidavit sworn by Amada B. Quesnot, the mother of five-year old Eugene Quesnot. On November 13, 1941, she attempted to take little Eugene to M&S Clinic for treatment yet was turned away because of her ethnicity. Amada writes,

The lady in charge in the Social Workers Room asked me if I was Latin American and when I replied in the affirmative she stated that no Latin American children were accepted for treatment at that Clinic.

(Quesnot qtd. in Perales 204)
Quesnot, Amada , “Affidavit sworn by Amada Quesnot to Alonso S. Perales,” Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage Digital Collections.

Turned away, Amada insists upon her own legitimacy in her letter, tracing it through her US citizenship and both her husband’s and older son’s military service. She was born here, she protests. But her brown skin is read as un-American; and the brown skin of her five-year old child is read as undeserving of medical attention. Her decision to write the letter affirms her need to do something, to plead for political action. She documents a struggle, a status quo that needs to change. Her lived reality is tied to this political desire. Cherrie Moraga’s theory in the flesh makes this connection; a theory in the flesh, she writes, is a theory in which “the physical realities of our lives–our skin color, the land of concrete we grew up on, our sexual longings–all fuse to create a politic born out of necessity” (19). Echoing Moraga’s (1981) argument that theory is fused to the body, Sara Ahmed states that:

The personal is theoretical. Theory itself is often assumed to be abstract: something is more theoretical the more abstract it is, the more it is abstracted from everyday life. To abstract is to drag away, detach, pull away, or divert. We might then have to drag theory back, to bring theory back to life.

(2017; 10)

Gloria Anzaldúa’s (1987) mestiza consciousness then weaves these two together. It is the thread that ties the theory to the flesh. Anzaldúa imagines the mestiza putting

history through a sieve…This step is a conscious rupture with all oppressive traditions of all cultures and religions. She communicates that rupture, documents the struggle. She reinterprets history and, using new symbols, she shapes new myths.

(Anzaldúa 104)

Mestiza consciousness as an approach to DH calls us to read for the silences in historical narratives, to discard the frameworks that marginalize the experiences of people of color, and to invent new theories and methodologies that center our lived experiences.

Turning to Third World feminism in DH, then, reminds us to bring theory back to life, to bring it back to the lived experience. “Doing DH” isn’t just about the final product, but also about the process of dragging theory back and embodying it. Moreover, shifting the loci of enunciation from the center to the margin, reimagines DH not just as a site of knowledge-production, but also as a site of decolonial resistance and social justice. Our digital work does not need to be reduced to mere zeros and ones or replicate the canonical archive of dead white men’s work, but instead can be a space to reclaim lost histories, reveal injustices, and demand that our voices be heard. Allow me to end with one last Ahmed quotation in order to highlight the importance of thinking through DH via Third World feminism; I ask that you reflect on digital scholarship and digitized archives as I read this: “Your texts are littered with love. Words can pulse with life; words as flesh, leaking; words as heart, beating.” (2017; 230). Thank you.

Works cited

Ahmed, Sara. Cultural Politics of Emotion. Routledge, 2014.

_____. Living a Feminist Life. Duke University Press, 2017.

Anzaldúa, Gloria E. Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. Aunt Lute Books, 1987.

Moraga, Cherríe and Gloria E. Anzaldúa. This Bridge Called My Back.Writings by Radical Women of Color. 4th ed., SUNY Press, 2015.

Olivas, Michael A. (ed.) In Defense of My People: Alonso S. Perales and the Development of Mexican-American Public Intellectuals. Houston: Arte Público Press, 2012.

Quesnot, Amada , “Affidavit sworn by Amada Quesnot to Alonso S. Perales,” Alonso S. Perales Collection. Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage Digital Collections.


Lorena Gauthereau is a CLIR Postdoctoral Fellow at Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage at the University of Houston. Find her online at

UT’s Digital Scholarship in the Americas series

On Friday, November 2, 2018, Recovery’s CLIR-Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow, Dr. Lorena Gauthereau will be presenting “(Digital) Methodology of the Oppressed: Decolonial Theory and US Latina/o Digital Humanities” at the University of Texas at Austin. The lecture is sponsored by LLILAS Benson Latin American Studies and Collections and the Center for Mexican American Studies. It will take place from 12:00-1:30 pm at the Benson Library. Registration is required before 5:00 pm November 1st at

In this talk, Dr. Gauthereau draws on Chela Sandoval, Cherríe Moraga, and Emma Pérez to discuss the implications and applications of Chicana decolonial theory and affect theory for the Digital Humanities and minority collections. By focusing on the emerging US Latina/o Digital Humanities initiative at Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage, she examines the structural colonial problems encountered in US Latina/o DH and the stakes of digital decolonial praxis.


Post-Custodial Archives and Minority Collections

Last week (July 31, 2018), I had the honor of speaking at CLIR’s (Council on Library and Information Resources) summer seminar for new Postdoctoral Fellows. I was very excited to get the opportunity to meet a new cohort of fellows just as they are beginning their new positions at various institutions. (For more information on CLIR Postdoctoral Fellowships, visit their website! And keep an eye out for the next round of applications this fall/winter.)

Title Slide

My talk centered on the work we do at Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage (aka “Recovery”), the importance of minority archives, and working toward inclusivity. For 27 years, Recovery has dedicated itself to recovering, preserving, and disseminating the lost written legacy of Latinas and Latinos in the United States. US Latina/o collections, like other minority collections, do not traditionally form part of a larger national historical narrative. Herein lies the importance of minority collections: the stories they tell give us a more nuanced understanding of US history and culture.

Let’s take a step back to think about the structure of archives, the inherent issues, and the questions that we—as archivists, scholars, students, and educators—should ask ourselves when engaging with historical collections. Archives help structure knowledge and history. Michel Foucault argues that history “now organizes the document” [with “document” being the archival] “divides it up, distributes it, orders it, arranges it in levels, establishes series, distinguishes between what is relevant and what is not, discovers elements, defines unities, describes relations” (146). Thus history, or perhaps more aptly, what we understand to be or call history, cannot be distinguished from the production and organization of the archive. Furthermore, national archives help to create an authoritative national narrative. The International Council on Archives, for example, describes archives on their webpage as follows:

Archives constitute the memory of nations and societies, shape their identity, and are a cornerstone of the information society. By proving evidence of human actions and transactions, archives support administration and underlie the rights of individuals, organisations and states. By guaranteeing citizens’ rights of access to official information and to knowledge of their history, archives are fundamental to identity, democracy, accountability and good governance.

Given this defined mission of archives, we can think about what archives do or are meant to do; they define:

  • “the nation,”
  • “history,”
  • what is—and what isn’t—considered “important,”
  • “knowledge.”

I write these words in quotation marks to stress that the defining or shaping of such concepts is a construction. In this vein, archives have historically functioned as mechanism of colonialism. They have helped to structure our understanding of history and the nation in a way that also structures our understanding of what we call “civilization” and “barbarism.” In order for colonialism to thrive, imperial powers had to not only take over a physical territory, but they also had to control the shared imaginary. Franz Fanon (1963) emphasizes the total reach of colonialism and its desire to destroy the history of oppressed peoples in The Wretched of the Earth. He writes:

…colonialism is not simply content to impose its rule upon the present and the future of a dominated country…. By a kind of perverse logic, it turns to the past of the oppressed people, and distorts it, disfigures it and destroys it. (210)

As a result of this logic, the colonial model created institutions determined to own and possess history in order to categorize it (using Eurocentric methods of classification). In many cases, history and artifacts were/are appropriated, to the extent of removing sacred items and even bodies (or just body parts) and putting them on display. Think of mummified Egyptian and Indigenous bodies, Sara Baartman (known as the Hottentot Venus), etc. Items stolen from their original communities are often displayed or archived in museums, archives, and libraries. Because of this, it is important to take the moment to reflect when we work on, interact with, curate, and teach archives or the items in them. Here are a few questions to consider:

Chained books on a shelf

  • Who determines what belongs in the archive?
  • Who defined the archive? Who determined what was archivable?
  • Who created the metadata? (Think about the traditional way of organizing things in a library, i.e. using Library of Congress subject headings)
  • Who maintains the archive?
  • Who has access to the archive or the knowledge contained in the archive?
  • Where did the material originate?
Postcustodial archives

Since, as mentioned earlier, archives have historically functioned as an instrument of colonialism, community members with personal collections are often wary of institutional archives. Even today, large, well-known libraries have disposed of or sold collections deemed “unimportant” (usually minority collections) in order to make room for “more important collections.” Moving away from an archive design that requires possession and ownership is a stance that delinks libraries from the colonial model. The postcustodial theory of archives is “the idea that archivists will no longer physically acquire and maintain records, but that they will provide management oversight for records that will remain in the custody of the record creators” (Pearce-Moses). Digital technology allows archivists the ability to return physical collections to the original record keepers and create digital copies that can be housed in an institutional repository. Furthermore, postcustodial practices offer opportunities for community engagement, as Sofía Becerra-Licha (2017) suggests. Digital technology, she contends,

…presents a significant opportunity for participatory and post-custodial approaches that seek to shift curatorial authority and access to the communities represented. In this model, archivists work side-by-side with community members to actively rectify gaps in historical coverage and proactively document the present day. (n.p.)

Postcustodianship allows us to re-think the institutional structure of the archive and promotes new possibilities for record oversight and knowledge-production. Considering the questions posed earlier and the theory of post-custodial archives, we can begin to restructure archives themselves. Personal and community archives can challenge traditional notions of “the national archive” as both a brick and mortar building and a collection of the “official” history. The goal of post-custodianship is to open up new avenues for creating knowledge. It allows the communities themselves to maintain ownership of their own histories, but also fills in the gaps of the official record by providing minority points of view.

Works cited
Becerra-Licha, Sofía. “Participatory and Post-Custodial Archives as Community Practice.” Educause Review, 23 Oct. 2017,
Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. Translated by Richard Philcox, Grove Press, 2004.

Foucault, Michel. The Archeology of Knowledge. London: Tavistock Publications, 1972.

International Council on Archives. “Mission, Aims and Objectives.” 2016.
Pearce-Moses, Richard. “Postarchival theory of archives.” A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology. Society of American Archivists, 2005.
Further reading
Battles, Matthew. Library: An Unquiet History. 1 edition, W. W. Norton & Company, 2015.
Lazo, Rodrigo. “Migrant Archives.” States of Emergency: The Object of American Studies, edited by Russ Castronovo and Susan Kay Gillman, 2009, pp. 38–72.
“US Latina/o Digital Humanities Reading List.” Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage.
“What Is An Archives?” Society of American Archivists, 2007.

Lorena Gauthereau is a CLIR Postdoctoral Fellow at Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage at the University of Houston. Find her online at

Next week: Recovery scholars in Mexico City

Recovery DH2018

The countdown has begun for DH2018, an international conference on Digital Humanities. Recovery scholars will be presenting on US Latino Digital Humanities on a variety of panels with other digital humanists concerned with social justice and minority archives. Make sure to follow the hashtags #DH2018 and #usLdh as well as our Twitter account, @AppRecovery for updates and live tweets!

Wednesday, June 27, 2:00 pm

De la teoría a la práctica: Visualización digital de las comunidades en la frontera México-Estados Unidos

Maira E. Álvarez and Sylvia Fernández


Thursday, June 28, 4:00 pm

Legado de las/los latinas/os en los Estados Unidos: Proyectos de DH con archivos de Recovery

Isis Campos, Annette Zapata, Sylvia Fernández, and Maira E. Álvarez,


Friday, June 29, 11:00 am

Social Justice, Data Curation, and Latin American and Caribbean Studies

Lorena Gauthereau, Hannah Alpert-Abrams (University of Texas-Austin), Alex Galarza (Haverford College), Mario H. Ramírez (Indiana University), and Crystal Andrea Felima (University of Florida)


Friday, June 29, 4:00 pm

Justice-Based DH, Practice, and Communities

Gabriela Baeza Ventura, Carolina Villarroel, Vika Zafrin (Boston University), Purdom Lindblad (University of Maryland), and Roopika Risam (Salem State University)

USLDH: US Latino Digital Humanities

Personal Archives and History

This week, the University of Houston Libraries hosted the 2018 Personal Digital Archiving Conference (April 23-25). You can check out the Twitter conversations by searching for the #PDA18 hashtag or view the conference website (and presentation abstracts) here:

Hosted by the University of Houston Libraries. #PDA18 PDA is the only conference focused on the personal digital archive, including projects and presentations from both individuals and organizations. Houston, TX - April 23-25, 2018. Personal Digital Archiving Conference

April 23-25, 2017

On Monday, I presented on Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage with my colleagues, Dr. Gabriela Baeza Ventura and Dr. Carolina Villarroel. We talked about Recovery’s mission, our collections, and our developing US Latinx Digital Humanities programming. We thought this conference provided us with a great opportunity to talk about how important personal archives are for US Latinx history. (You can watch the video on our Facebook page here.)

It goes without saying that minority stories have often fallen by the wayside when writing mainstream history. There are significant gaps in our historical record and this is where personal archives come into play. Many of Recovery’s own collections have changed the way we view American history and have elaborated on the role Latinxs have played in American society and culture. For decades, scholars tried to justify the absence of Latinx authors in the US canon by claiming Latinxs did not produce literature. Yet, Recovery’s preservation efforts challenged that assumption by recovering manuscripts and Spanish-language newspapers dating back to the colonial period.  Among these texts is María Amparo Ruiz de Burton’s collection, which includes two novels: Who Would Have Thought it? (1872) and The Squatter and the Don (1885). Ruiz de Burton is considered the first Mexican American woman to have published in the United States in English.


From left to right: Dr. Carolina Villarroel, Dr. Gabriela Baeza Ventura, and Dr. Lorena Gauthereau presenting at the University of Houston Libraries Personal Digital Archiving Conference on April 23, 2018.

During the presentation, I gave three examples of personal archives that we have in our collections: Leonor Villegas de Magnón, Emilio Sarabia, and Alonso S. Perales (You may remember reading about Villegas de Magnón and Perales in previous blog entries.) These collections help to deepen our understanding of the Mexican Revolution, the Houston Latinx community, and Mexican American civil rights, respectively.

Leonor Villegas de Magnón

Leonora Villegas de Magnón was a teacher, journalist, and political activist who lived on the US-Mexico border at the turn of the century. In 1910, at the beginning of the Mexican Revolution, she and her family immigrated from Nuevo Laredo, Mexico to Laredo, Texas to escape the fighting. Yet, she didn’t stay away from the Revolution. Instead, she, along with Elena Arizmendi Mejia, founded La Cruz Blanca, or the Neutral White Cross, a neutral volunteer nursing corps. La Cruz Blanca provided medical attention for wounded revolutionaries, regardless of their allegiance. Villegas de Magnón turned her home into a makeshift hospital to tend to the wounded.

Leonor Villegas de Magnón on left, wearing long dark dress, crossed bullet belts, and hat, holding a rifle. Right-side of photo: Aracelito García in dark long sleeves coat and long dark skirt, facing Leonor. Between them, on horseback, holding a rifle, sits Guillermo Martinez Celis.

Leonor Villegas de Magnón, Aracelito García, and Guillermo Martínez Celis. From Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage’s Leonor Villegas de Magnón Collection

Aware of the historical significance of the women’s involvement in the Mexican Revolution,Villegas de Magnón hired a photographer to document as much as possible. After the Revolution, she wrote her memoirs in Spanish, which she titled La Rebelde. When Mexican publishers refused to publish a woman’s writing on the Revolution, she re-wrote it in English (The Rebel). Once again, her manuscript was rejected. Decades later, through the recovery efforts of our board member, Dr. Clara Lomas, we were able to locate the collection and fulfill Villegas de Magnón’s wish to publish her manuscripts with Arte Público Press both in English and in Spanish (see Archival Research: Recovering Oppressed Voices for a brief outline of the provenance of this collection.)

Emilio Sarabia

Emilio Sarabia is a Houston dentist and local historian. His collection documents the culture and impact of the Houston Mexican immigrant community.

Top: Group photo, people standing on the patio of a house in 1899. Bottom: same house in 1999. Caption at the bottm: 1520 Center Street-1999. Righthand side of image: facsimile of a letter (illegible).

From Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage’s Sarabia Collection

His family established the Azteca Theatre, the first movie theater in Houston for Spanish-language films. Sarabia’s collection documents the development of the Hispanic community in Houston and contains photographs of buildings that were significant to the community, many of which still stand today. These photographs, therefore, help to provide a cultural map of Houston.

Alonso S. Perales

Alonso S. Perales was the third Mexican American lawyer and co-founder of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). He was deeply committed to fighting for the civil rights of Mexican Americans. His collection is extensive, measuring 17 linear feet and includes photographs, correspondence, LULAC materials, books, essays, speeches, and more (see also “LULAC Council 60 Clubhouse: This Place Matters”).


Alonso S. Perales. From Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage’s Alonso S. Perales Collection

The Perales collection not only documents the creation and organization of LULAC, but also the rise of Mexican American civil rights activism in Texas during the 1930s and 1940s. Among his collection are scores of letters documenting discrimination against people of Mexican descent at restaurants, public parks, barber shops, hotels, and even schools. Recently, while I was digging through his papers at UH Special Collections, I found a heartbreaking letter addressed to Perales from James L. Collins, Commanding Major General of the US Army. In this letter, General Collins acknowledges having received Perales’ letter regarding American soldiers of Mexican descent being refused service while in uniform. Regrettably, Collins responds:

While Article 157 of the Texas Penal Code makes it an offense, punishable by a fine, for any person to discriminate against anyone because of his membership in the United States Army, or because of his wearing any Army uniform; unfortunately, in the instant case, the discrimination complained of was due to the nativity of the soldiers and not because of their being soldiers. (Feb. 8, 1941)

Perales’ collection, thus, chronicles his continuous efforts to combat discrimination in any way that was accessible to him and his community: writing letters to elected officials, publishing (and calling out) the people and establishments guilty of racial discrimination in newspapers, giving speeches on civil rights activism, and more. This personal archive fills in the gaps of US Latina/o civil rights history prior to the Chicana/o Movement in the 1960s.

Delis Negrón Poster Presentation

In addition to our panel, Recovery Graduate Research Assistant and UH Doctoral Candidate, Sylvia Fernández presented a poster on Delis Negrón, a Puerto Rican poet, journalist, and activist. Fernández presented a forthcoming digital project undertaken by the Recovery Graduate Assistants (Isis Campos, Victoria Moreno, and Annette Zapata): The Delis Negrón Digital Biography, which includes digitized photographs, postcards, correspondence, newspaper clippings, and more. This project will be hosted on Omeka and will include various interactive functions.

"Delis Negrón Digital Archive: From a Personal Archive to a Digital Project" poster, with images of letters, newspaper clippings, and photographs of Delis Negrón

Recovery RA and UH PhD Candidate, Sylvia Fernández, presented her poster, “Delis Negrón Digital Archive: From a Personal Archive to a Digital Project” at the 2018 Personal Digital Archiving Conference

 Digitizing Personal Archives

Digitizing these archives is a way to preserve the history that has been left out of history books. With growing access to open-source archiving platforms, we hope that more minority stories will begin to make their way into the public eye. We are currently working to create digital projects focused on the following individuals’ personal archives: Delis Negrón, Alonso S. Perales, and Emilio Sarabia. Keep checking our blog for updates on these digital humanities projects!

Works cited

Baeza Ventura, G., Gauthereau, L., and Villarroel, C. “Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage.” Personal Digital Archiving Conference, University of Houston Libraries, Houston, TX. Facebook. 23 April 2018.

“To Mr. Alonso S. Perales, Director General, League of Loyal Americans, From James L. Collins, Major General, U. S. Army, Headquarters Second Division, February 8, 1941.”, Alonso S. Perales Collection: The Committee of One Hundred Citizens & the League of Loyal Citizens, 1927-1954. April 2, 1934. N=76512618&site=ehost-live&ppid=divp80&lpid=divl68

Further reading:

Cutler, Leigh. Interview with Emilio Sarabia. November 3, 2004. Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries. University of Houston Digital Library.

Olivas, Michael A. (ed.) In Defense of My People: Alonso S. Perales and the Development of Mexican-American Public Intellectuals. Arte Público Press, 2013.

Sarabia, Emilio A. Four Brothers. Houston, TX: Arte Público Press, 2015.

Villegas de Magnón, Leonor. La Rebelde. ed. Clara Lomas. Houston, TX: Arte Público Press, 2004.

_____. The Rebel. ed. Clara Lomas. Houston, TX: Arte Público Press, 1994.

Lorena Gauthereau is a CLIR Postdoctoral Fellow at Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage at the University of Houston. Find her online at